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Tuesday, October 9, 2012

MCHN: Signs of Pregnancy



Signs of Pregnancy:
Presumptive Signs
·    Amenorrhea – absence of menses
·    Nausea and Vomiting
·    Increased breast sensitivity and breast changes
·    Increased pigmentation
·    Constipation
·    Frequent urination
·    Quickening
·    Abdominal enlargement

Probable Signs
·    Uterine enlargement
·    Hegar’s Sign
·    Goodell’s Sign
·    Chadwick’s Sign
·    Ballottement
·    Braxton Hick’s contraction
·    Positive Pregnancy Test

Positive Signs
·    Fetal Heart Tone
·    X-ray or Ultrasound of fetus
·    Palpable fetal movements


Discomforts of Pregnancy

Changes
Reason
Health Teachings
Nausea and Vomiting

Increased HCG
·    Dry crackers 30 min. before arising
·    Small, frequent, low fat meals
·    Liquids bet. meals
·    Avoid anti-emetics.

Heartburn

Increased progesterone which dec. gastric motility causing esophageal reflux.
·    Pats of butter before meals
·    Avoid fried , fatty foods
·    Sips of milk at frequent intervals.
·    Small, frequent meals taken slowly.
·    Bends at the knees, not at the waist
·    Take antacids
Constipation
Due to displacement of the stomach and intestines; iron supplements
·    Increased fluids and roughage in the diet.
·    Regular elimination time.
·    Increase exercise
·    Avoid enemas, harsh laxatives and mineral oil.
Hemorrhoids
Pressure of growing fetus, Increase venous pressure
·    Warm sitz bathing
·    High fiber diet and increase fluid.
·    Sit on soft pillow
Urinary Frequency
Increase blood supply to the kidney/
Pressure of enlarged uterus in the 3rd Tri
·    Sleep on the side at night.
·    Limit fluid intake during evening
·    Bladder training
Backache
From exaggerated lumbo-sacral curving during pregnancy.
·    Back exercise (pelvic rock)
·    Wear low-heeled shoes.
·    Avoid heavy lifting
Leg Cramps
Increase pressure of gravid fetus, low calcium
·    Frequent rest with feet elevated
·    Regular exercise like walking
·    Increase milk intake
Ankle Edema
From venous stasis
·    Elevate legs at least twice a day.
·    Sleep on left side
Varicose Veins
From faulty valves or weakened vessel walls
·    Elevate feet when sitting.
·    Use support hose
·    Apply elastic bandage
·    Avoid use of constricting garters
Shortness of breath
From pressure on diaphragm
·    Sleep with feet elevated or on
·    regularly.
Nasal stuffiness and epistaxis
Elevated Estrogen levels
·    Direct pressure to the nasal area
·    Avoid blowing of nose.
Fatigue
Due to hormonal changes
·    Get regular exercise
·    Sleep as much as needed.
·    Avoid stimulants.
Breast Tenderness
Increase estrogen and progesterone level
·    Wear well fitted bra
·    Warm compress
Increased Vaginal discharges
Due to hyperplasia of mucosa and increase mucus production
·    Consult physician if infection is suspected
·    Wash carefully and keep it dry.


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