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Sunday, May 1, 2016

Nursing Mnemonics: Everything Made EASY Part 1


Mnemonic device, is any learning technique that aids memory. To improve long term memory, mnemonic systems are used to make memorization easier. They do so by increasing the efficiency of the process of consolidation.

The HYPERKALEMIA "Machine" - Causes of Increased Serum K+
M - Medications - ACE inhibitors, NSAIDS
A - Acidosis - Metabolic and respiratory
C - Cellular destruction - Burns, traumatic injury
H - Hypoaldosteronism, hemolysis
I - Intake - Excesssive
N - Nephrons, renal failure
E - Excretion – Impaired

MURDER
Signs and Symptoms of Increased Serum K+
M - Muscle weakness
U - Urine, oliguria, anuria
R- Respiratory distress
D - Decreased cardiac contractility
E - ECG changes
R - Reflexes, hyperreflexia, or areflexia (flaccid)

HYPONATREMIA
"You Are Fried"
F - Fever (low grade), flushed skin
- Restless (irritable)
- Increased fluid retention and increased BP
- Edema (peripheral and pitting)
D - Decreased urinary output, dry mouth

Can also use this one:
SALT

S = Skin flushed
A = Agitation
L = Low-grade fever
T = Thirst


"CATS" of "HYPOCALCEMIA"
C - Convulsions
A- Arrhythmias
T - Tetany
S - Spasms and stridor


To remember which blood types are compatible, visualize the letter “O” as an orb representing the universe, because type O blood is the universal donor blood. Patients with any blood type can receive it. But O also means “odd man out”: Patients with type O blood can receive only type O blood. Think BEEP to remember the signs of minor bleeding:
B: Bleeding gums
E: Ecchymoses (bruises)
E: Epistaxis (nosebleed)
P: Petechiae (tiny purplish spots)

Hypo/Hyperplasia
Having difficulty distinguishing hypoplasia from hyperplasia? When you see plasia in any word, think of "plastic." Plastic, in turn, means forming or developing. As for hypo and hyper, that’s the easy part. Hypo means under, or below normal. Hyper means excessive, or above normal. Thus, hypoplasia means underdevelopment, and hyperplasia means overdevelopment.

A stand-up comedian who gets no laughs might say his audience has humoral immunity. But humor is the Latin word for “liquid,” and humoral immunity comes from elements in the blood — specifically, antibodies. Contrast this with cellular immunity, which comes about through the actions of T cells. 
"FARM" for serum sickness: each letter stands for a key sign or symptom of serum sickness.
F: Fever
A: Arthralgias
R: Rash
M: Malaise

To remember the four causes of cell injury, think of how the injury tipped (or TIPD) the scale of homeostasis:
T: Toxin or other lethal (cytotoxic) substance
I: Infection
P: Physical insult or injury
D: Deficit, or lack of water, oxygen, or nutrients.

When asking assessment questions, remember the American Cancer Society’s mnemonic device CAUTION:
C: Change in bowel or bladder habits
A: A sore that doesn’t heal
U: Unusual bleeding or discharge
T: Thickening or lump
I: Indigestion or difficulty swallowing
O: Obvious changes in a wart or mole
N: Nagging cough or hoarseness.

Use the ABCD rule to assess a mole’s malignant potential:
A: Asymmetry--Is the mole irregular in shape?
B: Border--Is the border irregular, notched, or poorly defined?
C: Color--Does the color vary (for example, between shades of brown, red, white, blue, or black)?
D: Diameter--Is the diameter more than 6 mm?


Listening Heart Sound
APE TO MAN
Atrial, Pulmonic, Erb's point, Tricuspid, Mitral


Side effects of steroids. The 5 S's.
Sick- easier to get sick
Sad-causes depression
Sex-increases libido
Salt-retains more and causes weight gain
Sugar-raises blood sugar


5F's... Cholecystectomy
female
fair
fat
forty

fertile





R Respiratory
O Opposite

ph > PCO2 < Alkalosis
ph < PCO2 > Acidosis

M Metabolic
E Equal

ph> HCO3 > Alkalosis
ph< HC03 < Acidosis


Immediate tx of MI, think MONA:
M Morphine sulfate
O Oxygen
N Nitroglycerin
A ASA

Treatment of CHF, think UNLOAD FAST:
U sit Upright
N Nitro
L Lasix
O Oxygen
A Aminophylline
D Digoxin

F Fluids- decrease
A Afterload - decrease
S Sodium - decrease
T Tests: dig level, ABG, K+

Assistive devices -- Canes:
C Cane
O Opposite
A Affected
L Leg


Signs of a Cholinergic Crisis, think SLUD:
S Salivation
L Lacrimation
U Urination
D Defication

Memory Trick:Need to remember which kind of beta blocker has which action?
B1 Blocks the heart (you have only one heart)
B2 Blocks the lungs (you have two lungs)


CRAINIAL NERVES. im pretty sure most of you heard of these.
Nerves Functions 


I Olfactory -Oh -Sensory -Some
II Optic- Oh -Sensory -Say
III Occulomotor -Oh -Motor -Mary
IV Trochlear -To -Motor -Money
V Trigeminal -Touch -Both -But
VI Abducens -And -Motor -My
VII Facial -Feel -Both -Brother
VIII Acoustic (vestoblochlear) -A -Sensory -Says
IX Glosopharyngeal -Green -Both -Bad
X Vagus -Veggie -Both -Business
XI Spinal Accessory- Soon At -Motor -Mary
XII Hypoglosal -Harvest- Motor -Money

Oh oh oh to touch and feel a green veggie soon at harvest
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